What are embryonic stem cells? What stages of early embryonic development are important for generating embryonic stem cells?
Abstract The greatest therapeutic promise of human embryonic stem cells hESC is to generate specialized cells to replace damaged tissue in patients suffering from various degenerative diseases.
However, the signaling mechanisms involved in lineage restriction of ESC to adopt various cellular phenotypes are still under investigation.
Furthermore, for progression of hESC-based therapies towards clinical applications, appropriate culture conditions must be developed to generate genetically stable homogenous populations of cells, to hinder possible adverse effects following transplantation.
Other critical challenges that must be addressed for successful cell implantation include problems related to survival and functional efficacy of the grafted cells. This review initially describes the derivation of hESC and focuses on recent advances in generation, characterization, and maintenance of these cells.
We also give an overview of original and emerging differentiation strategies used to convert hESC to different cell types. Finally, we will discuss transplantation studies of hESC-derived cells with respect to safety and functional recovery.
Human, embryonic, cells, progenitors, differentiation, ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm, karyotype, feeder-free, synthetic scaffolds, hydrogels, hyaluronic acid, hepatocyte, embryoid bodies, mesenchymal, osteocytes, chondrocytes, stromal, hematopoietic, cardiomyocytes, endothelial, epithelial, neural, neurons, motor neurons, dopaminergic neurons, oligodendrocytes, myelination, degenerative disorders, transplantation 1.
Introduction Embryonic stem cells ESC are pluripotent cells which give rise to all somatic cell types in the embryo. ESC can be a valuable tool for understanding the complex mechanisms involved in development of specialized cells and establishment of organ structures.
Moreover, the indefinite self-renewal ability and plasticity of ESC allows for in vitro generation of an unlimited number of distinct cell types, and has opened new avenues for regenerative medicine. The greatest therapeutic promise of human ESC hESC is to generate specialized cells to replace damaged tissue in patients suffering from various degenerative diseases.
Furthermore, for progression of hESC-based therapies towards clinical applications, appropriate culture conditions must be developed to generate genetically stable homogenous populations of cells, to avoid possible adverse effects following transplantation.
We also give an overview of differentiation strategies used to convert hESC to different cell types. Derivation of ESC Following fertilization of an egg and formation of a diploid zygote, a structure referred to as a blastocyst is generated by multiple mitotic cell divisions during early embryogenesis.
The blastocyst consists of an inner layer of cells called the embryoblast and an outer layer of cells called the trophoblast.
The trophectoderm, also referred to as the outer cell mass, forms the extra-embryonic tissue, which eventually gives rise to the placenta, chorion, and the umbilical cord. The embryoblast, also known as the inner cell mass ICMdevelops into the embryo Gilbert, Early studies of development of mouse blastocysts by Sherman et al.
Four cell lines were obtained and maintained for more than a year. However, these lines contained cell types other than undifferentiated ESC, were not able to differentiate to all the three germ layers in vivo and eventually developed chromosomal abnormalities. Subsequently, established cultures of embryonal carcinoma stem cells were used to develop appropriate culture conditions and determine the optimal stage of isolation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells, leading to the successful derivation of the first stable mouse embryonic stem cell lines in Evans and Kaufman, ; Martin, ; Martin, Experience the Best Toxicology Research.
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Historical Overview. morphology and growth speed alone are not enough criteria for distinguishing good ES cell lines. Further characterization steps could include the following. J.L.
Stock, R. Byrum, B.H. Koller, J.D.
McNeishA new embryonic stem cell line from DBA/1lacJ mice allows genetic modification in a murine model of human. All six volumes are published at the same time, not as a series; this is not a conventional encyclopedia but a symbiotic integration of brief articles on established topics and longer chapters on .
79 Annex 3 Recommendations for the evaluation of animal cell cultures as substrates for the manufacture of biological medicinal products and for the characterization.
A complete list of sessions from the Education Program at the ASH annual meeting. Chapters based on these sessions are published in Hematology, the ASH Education Program. Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.
The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka’s lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells.