Model agencies collude to fix rates Regulators find leading model agencies guilty of price fixing. Economics - schools of thought Classical School The Classical school, which is regarded as the first school of economic thought, is associated with the 18th Century Scottish economist Adam Smith, and those British economists that followed, such as Robert Malthus and David Ricardo.
The academic, political, and economic nature of development means it tends to be policy oriented, problem-driven, and therefore effective only Developmental school of thought terms of and in relation to a particular, pre-existing social theory.
The actual development projects thus initiated, by both governments and NGOs, are directed in accordance with this development theory. Development theory itself, however, assumes a framework already set in place by government and political culture in order to implement it. The development process is therefore socially constructed; Western interests are guiding its direction and outcome, and so development itself fundamentally reflects the pattern of Western hegemony.
Development as an ideology and a social vision is ingrained in the ideals of modernization, which holds western economic structure and society as a universal model for others to follow and emulate. Rooted in western influence, the developmental discourse reflects the unequal power relations between the west and the rest of the world, whereby the western knowledge of development, approach toward development, and conception of what development entails, as well as perceptions of progress, directs the course for the rest of the world.
Postdevelopment theory holds that the whole concept and practice of development is a reflection of Western-Northern hegemony over the rest of the world. Postdevelopment thought arose in the s out of criticisms voiced against development projects and development theory, which justified them. The psychological schools are the great classical theories of psychology. Each has been highly influential; however, most psychologists hold eclectic viewpoints that combine aspects of each school. Most influential ones [ edit ]. While some schools of thought have faded into obscurity, each has had an influence on the course of psychology's development. Some more recent schools of psychology, including behaviorism and cognitive psychology, remain highly influential.
Reviewing development[ edit ] Influenced by Ivan Illich and other critics of colonialism and postcolonialism, a number of post-development theorists like Arturo Escobar and Gustavo Esteva have challenged the very meaning of development.
According to them, the way we understand development is rooted in the earlier colonial discourse that depicts the North as "advanced" and "progressive", and the South as "backward", "degenerate" and "primitive".
What we envisage is a program of development based on the concepts of democratic fair dealings. What was new was the definition of development in terms of an escape from underdevelopment. Since the latter referred to two-thirds of the world, this meant that most societies were made to see themselves as having fallen into the undignified condition of "underdevelopment", and thus to look outside of their own cultures for salvation.
Development, according to these critics, was now a euphemism for post-war American hegemony ; it was the ideals and development programs of the United States and its Western European allies that would form the basis of development everywhere else.
Leading members of the post-development school argue that development was always unjust, never worked, and at this point has clearly failed.
According to Wolfgang Sachsa leading member of the post-development school, "the idea of development stands like a ruin in the intellectual landscape" and "it is time to dismantle this mental structure.
The post-development school of thought points out that the models of development are often ethnocentric in this case Eurocentricuniversalist, and based on western models of industrialization that are unsustainable in this world of limited resources and ineffective for their ignorance of the local, cultural and historical contexts of the peoples to which they are applied.
In essence, the problem post-development theorists see in development and its practice is an imbalance of influence or domination by the west. Post development theorists promote more pluralism in ideas about development.
In this sense, development is seen as requiring the loss, or indeed the deliberate extermination ethnocide of indigenous culture  or other psychologically and environmentally rich and rewarding modes of life.
Majid Rahnema cites Helena Norberg-Hodge: Today she says, it has become part of the language. When visiting an outlying village some eight years ago, Helena asked a young Ladakhi where were the poorest houses.
Post-development critiques challenge the notion of a single path to development and demands acknowledgment of diversity of cultural perspectives and priorities.
|Proof of concept||In the context of the global cold war between capitalism and communism, the liberation movements represented a threat to US hegemony in the western hemisphere and had to be put down. Along came US President Ronald Reagan who gave free rein to his dogs of war to do just that, but it would be wrong to credit Reagan with only the butchery that went on in Central America.|
|Postdevelopment theory - Wikipedia||Vladimir Karpovich Dmitriev Modern schools late 19th and 20th centuries [ edit ] Mainstream economics is a term used to distinguish economics in general from heterodox approaches and schools within economics.|
For example, the politics of defining and satisfying needs is a crucial dimension of development thought, deeply entwined in the concept of agency. But who voices development concerns, what power relations are played out, how do the interests of development "experts" the World BankIMF officials, professionals, and so on rule the development priorities, and which voices are excluded as a result?
The post-development approach attempts to overcome the inequality of this discourse by opening up spaces for non-Western peoples and their concerns.
Postdevelopment theory is, above all, a critique of the standard assumptions about progress: Alternatives to development[ edit ] While the postdevelopment school provides a plethora of development critiques, it also considers alternative methods for bringing about positive change.
The postdevelopment school proposes a particular vision of society removed from the discourse of development, modernity, politics, cultural and economic influences from the west, and market oriented and centralized authoritarian societies.
In his works, Escobar has outlined the common features of post-development thought and societal vision.
According to Escobar, the post-development school of thought is interested in terms of searching for an alternative to development in "local culture and knowledge; a critical stance toward established scientific discourses; and the defense and promotion of localized, pluralistic grassroots movements.Oct 29, · Hello Learners!
in this video, we discussed two schools of thought of organizational development, programme-procedure school, and system-process school . Psychology, the study of the mind, has hundreds of theories and sub-theories, but the six main schools of thought are often the foundation for those new to the world of psychology.
Functionalism Psychological functionalism attempts to describe thoughts and what they do without asking how they do it.
Which of these four schools of thought focuses the most on women, children, and the environment? sustainable development Microcredit (e.g., the Grameen Bank) is an important development strategy pioneered during which school of thought?
A school which challenges only some of the evaluations and legitimations of the elite, rather than their right to accord such legitimation in general, might stand a better chance of success in such a situation.
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