Retired ; Dixie E. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: McCumiskey and Tim L.
Informal conversations Listening and observation at gatherings held for other purposes Learning as much as you can about community history. Social determinants of health and development often run deep and go back generations.
The Battle of Montaperti was fought between the Italian cities of Florence and Siena, then independent republics, in Apply critical thinking principles to analyze the results of the assessment. Very briefly, these include: Make sure your information is accurate.
Consider the reliability of your sources. Identify the interests being served or ignored. Ask the right questions. Some of the questions you might want to ask are: Whom does the issue affect?
What do those affected have in common? Geographical origin or location? Behavior or personal practices? What is the history of the issue in the community?
When did it become an issue? What else was happening at the time, both in the community and in the society at large? Who stands to gain, and who stands to lose — socially, economically, or politically — if nothing changes?
Who stands to gain, and who stands to lose if changes are made? Is there a win-win option, where everyone benefits? Who has the power to create change in this situation? What are reasons they may or may not do so?
Where is the issue centered, geographically and socially? Are there economic aspects to the issue? What would it cost to change the situation or to leave it as it is, and who would bear the cost in either case? At that point, you have an answer that identifies the root of the problem, and therefore implies a solution.
Differences between them and others in the society in the level of their exposure to those problems. Differences in their vulnerability to those problems. Differences in the consequences to them of those problems. An effective intervention has to break that cycle by understanding the social determinants behind it and changing them and the conditions that they cause in a truly profound way.
By doing so, you can help people not only improve their health and that of their children, but move up the ladder of economic and social status, thus cementing their gains, and securing them for the next generation.
This may seem like an impossible task. How can you change a society? Major social change often takes not a single type of intervention, but an all-out assault on a number of social factors over a long period of time.
Rather than trying to concentrate on the huge issues, you can intervene in the environmental and policy conditions that reflect social determinants and that can more easily affect differences in exposure, vulnerability, and consequences.
Environmental here refers not just to the natural environment, but to the total environment of the people in question. That includes the built environment — buildings, roads, power sources, farms, etc.
Environmental and policy conditions include: Individual and group knowledge and experience affect the availability of resources for supporting health and well-being. A villager who understands how to advocate with the government for clean drinking water, for instance, can greatly enhance the health prospects of his community.
Helping people gain knowledge and skills can be an intervention in itself, or be part of a broader intervention that nonetheless provides participants with tools to safeguard or improve their health and their lives. Some community development programs, for example, include literacy classes as part of the support they provide.
Providing knowledge of specific health issues and practices can have a dramatic effect on the health of a community. Safe sex practices, for instance, can cut down on the incidence of HIV infection, and information about the treatment of infant diarrhea can drastically reduce infant mortality.
In both these examples, addressing a specific issue serves to address efficacy, and, in the case of literacy training, economic inequality as well.The purpose of community assessment is largely to assess the community for needs and assets, but the strategies it proposes are equally useful in searching for social determinants of health and development.
Ethical Issues in Community Interventions. Chapter 19 Sections. A participant in a community program -- a health clinic, an adult literacy class, a youth leadership initiative -- has a right to certain expectations relating to how she and the information she passes on are treated.
This situation can lead to problems if participants have. For example, most health plans do not routinely collect information on members' income, education, and race; all of these factors can contribute to increased risk of poor quality care, but it is difficult to systematically identify these individuals.
ODPHP Health Communication. is a sample Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy for a fictional organization — ABC Community Health Center. The plan can be used as a guide for national, state, county, and community health organizations committed to improving health literacy.
Include health literacy improvement in program evaluation. A simple exchange between these two communication styles can easily lead to bad feeling and poor communication.
To address this issue, it's best to identify and talk about the issue. Safety and Health Topics | Ergonomics - Identify Problems how often the task is performed, the level of required effort and how long the task lasts. Risk factors that may lead to the development of MSDs include: An evaluation of the problem of MSDs among interpreters for the deaf.
Resources on Injury Rates.
Worker Health .