He arrived at WBS in as Lecturer, and gained steady promotion, reaching the highest level as Professor of Operations Management in In he delivered a keynote presentation at the inaugural conference, in India, of the Warwick Conference Series, speaking on the importance of international alumni to higher education and the benefits of active alumni to an institution. As Professor of Operations Management, Bob specialised in the transformation of service organisations through the re-design and innovative delivery of service.
Getty Images Advertisement Sight begins when light bounces off surfaces and enters our eyes. The muscles of our pupils control how much light passes through, and the clear cornea and lens bend the light and focus it onto the retina, a thin strip of tissue covered in millions of light-sensitive neurons, or photoreceptors.
These nerve cells, named for the way they are shaped—like rods and cones—are where light is converted into electrical signals then sent via the optic nerve to the visual centers of the brain.
Our daytime vision depends on the cones because they respond best to bright light as opposed to the rods, which are sensitive to dim illumination. The pyramid-shaped cells come in three types: We need all three to perceive the many hues in our surroundings. The most common cause of color blindness—which affects approximately 8 percent of males and 0.
Robert Johnstona developmental biologist at Johns Hopkins University, and his colleagues wanted to understand how, exactly, developing cells in the human eye decide to become blue, green or red.
Prior research had provided some big clues, showing this process occurs in a stepwise manner—blue cells come first, then red and green ones follow—and that thyroid hormone, a molecule secreted by the thyroid gland in the neck, is a critical player in this process.
But many of these studies had been conducted on animals such as fish, chicken and mice because of the obvious ethical challenge of experimenting with human tissue. Although researchers can study donated retinas from deceased fetuses, it is nearly impossible to obtain samples for some periods of early development.
At the end of maturation the mini retinas looked remarkably like real human ones.
The researchers found similarities in the shape of the cone cells, their distribution across the tissue and the production of various proteins. By closely examining the cone cells as they grew in the retinal organoids, the team found, for the first time in human tissue, the sequence of events that triggered development of stem cells into the various types of cone cells.
Cells started turning into blue cones first—between 11 and 34 weeks after the retina started growing—then the red and green cones appeared shortly after.
When the researchers used a gene-editing tool to remove the receptor the hormone acted on, they created mini retinas with only blue cells. On the other hand, they found adding more thyroid hormone early in development caused the organoids to produce green and red ones almost exclusively.
In the mids Reh and others reported the first evidence thyroid hormone is critical to cone development in mice and chickens. In later studies the researchers outlined the role this molecule played in determining the actual distribution of red, blue and green cones across the retina.
There has even been some support for these observations in people—a few clinical investigations have shown premature infants with low levels of thyroid hormone develop color vision defects. She adds scientists have also found thyroid hormone is important for maintaining cones in adult animals, and that her lab has found suppressing the activity of this hormone in mice can protect the rodents from retinal degeneration.
According to Johnston, this research could help develop future therapies for eye disorders such as color blindness or macular degeneration, age-related damage to the retina that can result in vision loss.
She writes about health and the life sciences from Berlin.Clue: Science writer Willy. Science writer Willy is a crossword puzzle clue that we have spotted 5 times. There are related clues (shown below). View Rob Johnston’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. Rob has 4 jobs listed on their profile.
See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Rob’s connections and jobs at similar ph-vs.com: Aviation Business Development . View Robert Johnston’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community.
Robert has 1 job listed on their profile. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Robert’s Title: Attorney. Oct 11, · Watch video · As they advance those studies, Johnston says, science is getting closer to a reality where “designer retinas” — those grown in the lab — .
Rob Johnston has books on Goodreads, and recently added Detroit: An American Autopsy by Charlie LeDuff, 11/22/63 by Stephen King, and Christian Natio. Willy or Willie is a masculine given name, often a diminutive form of William or Wilhelm, and occasionally a ph-vs.com may refer to.