Introduction Samples for qualitative studies are generally much smaller than those used in quantitative studies.
Proportional allocation is advisable when all we know of the strata is their sizes. In situations where the standard deviations of the strata are known it may be advantageous to make a disproportionate allocation.
Suppose that, once again, we had stratum A and stratum B, but we know that the individuals assigned to stratum A were more varied with respect to their opinions than those assigned to stratum B.
Optimum allocation minimises the standard error of the estimated mean by ensuring that more respondents are assigned to the stratum within which there is greatest variation.
Quota sampling Quota sampling is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non-random. Selection is normally left to the discretion of the interviewer and it is this characteristic which destroys any pretensions towards randomness.
Quota v random sampling The advantages and disadvantages of quota versus probability samples has been a subject of controversy for many years. Some practitioners hold the quota sample method to be so unreliable and prone to bias as to be almost worthless.
Others think that although it is clearly less sound theoretically than probability sampling, it can be used safely in certain circumstances.
Still others believe that with adequate safeguards quota sampling can be made highly reliable and that the extra cost of probability sampling is not worthwhile. Generally, statisticians criticise the method for its theoretical weakness while market researchers defend it for its cheapness and administrative convenience.
Quota sampling 1 It is not possible to estimate sampling errors with quota sampling because of the absence of randomness. Some people argue that sampling errors are so small compared with all the other errors and biases that enter into a survey that not being able to estimate is no great disadvantage.
One does not have the security, though, of being able to measure and control these errors. For example, are those in the over 65 age group spread over all the age range or clustered around 65 and 66?
A quota interview on average costs only half or a third as much as a random interview, but we must remember that precision is lost. The labour of random selection is avoided, and so are the headaches of non-contact and callbacks.
Quota sampling is independent of the existence of sampling frames.
Cluster and multistage sampling Cluster sampling: The process of sampling complete groups or units is called cluster sampling, situations where there is any sub-sampling within the clusters chosen at the first stage are covered by the term multistage sampling.
For example, suppose that a survey is to be done in a large town and that the unit of inquiry i. Suppose further that the town contains 20, households, all of them listed on convenient records, and that a sample of households is to be selected.
One approach would be to pick the by some random method. However, this would spread the sample over the whole town, with consequent high fieldwork costs and much inconvenience. All the more so if the survey were to be conducted in rural areas, especially in developing countries where rural areas are sparsely populated and access difficult.
One might decide therefore to concentrate the sample in a few parts of the town and it may be assumed for simplicity that the town is divided into areas with 50 households in each. A simple course would be to select say 4 areas at random i. The overall probability of selection is unchanged, but by selecting clusters of households, one has materially simplified and made cheaper the fieldwork.
A large number of small clusters is better, all other things being equal, than a small number of large clusters.
Whether single stage cluster sampling proves to be as statistically efficient as a simple random sampling depends upon the degree of homogeneity within clusters.
If respondents within clusters are homogeneous with respect to such things as income, socio-economic class etc. On the other hand, the lower cost of cluster sampling often outweighs the disadvantages of statistical inefficiency. In short, cluster sampling tends to offer greater reliability for a given cost rather than greater reliability for a given sample size.
The population is regarded as being composed of a number of first stage or primary sampling units PSU's each of them being made up of a number of second stage units in each selected PSU and so the procedure continues down to the final sampling unit, with the sampling ideally being random at each stage.
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The necessity of multistage sampling is easily established. PSU's for national surveys are often administrative districts, urban districts or parliamentary constituencies.The early part of the chapter outlines the probabilistic sampling methods.
These include simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling and cluster sampling.
Thereafter, the principal non-probability method, quota sampling, is explained and its strengths and weaknesses outlined. Aug 23, · Edit Article How to Write an Outline for a Research Paper.
Five Parts: Sample Outlines Outline Type and Structure Outline Levels Components of Effective Outlines Organizing the Outline Community Q&A Writing an outline for a research paper can seem like a time consuming task, and you may not understand the value of it if you have never written one before%(62).
About this course: Course 4: Introduction to Research for Essay Writing This is the last course in the Academic Writing specialization before the capstone ph-vs.com the end of this course, you will be able to complete all the steps in planning a research paper.
After completing this course, you will be able to: choose appropriate research topics for college classes - write detailed outlines. Outline for Research Proposal Psy | Spring Organize your final research proposal according to the following outline.
Clearly indicate sections of the paper by using headings that indicate where particular kinds of information can.
It doesn’t matter how carefully you have conducted the research for your term paper and how much literature you have gone through for completing your term paper unless your term paper is in the right format and all its parts are structured appropriately.
Argument/Research Paper Outline Guide: This outline can help guide you through a series of questions. You can highlight-and-print this outline, but it's not a fill-in-the-blank outline; use it as a guide.
Many of my students like to use this outline for both research papers and argumentative papers.
Aug 23, · In this Article:Sample Outlines Outline Type and Structure Outline Levels Components of Effective Outlines Organizing the Outline Community Q&A Writing an outline for a research paper can seem like a time consuming task, and you may not understand the value of it if you have never written one before 77%(63). Aug 26, · Expert Reviewed. How to Outline a Term Paper. Four Parts: Sample Outline Laying the Groundwork Outlining a Term Paper Outlining During Revision Community Q&A A term paper is usually, but not always, a research-based essay due at the end of a semester or ph-vs.com: K. A research outline template sample will begin with an introducing your theme. The second part would deal with points for your arguments, the questionnaires, sample size, analysis, examples etc. The second part would deal with points for your arguments, the questionnaires, sample size, analysis, examples etc.