The mutapa state

Zimbabwe kingdoms are not written about as much in our history books. Instead we learn about the civil war, and french revolution numerous times over the length of our schooling.

The mutapa state

Etymology[ edit ] A sixteenth-century Portuguese map of Monomotapa lying in the interior of southern Africa. The Portuguese term Monomotapa is a transliteration of the African royal title Mwenemutapa meaning prince of the realm.

The mutapa state

The origins of the ruling dynasty at Mutapa go back to some time in the first half of the 15th century. The second says that there was hunger at the Kingdom of Zimbabwe.

Mutota then escaped the hunger then found land. This expansion weakened the Torwa kingdomthe southern Shona state from which Mutota and his dynasty originated. The empire had reached its full extent by the year a mere 50 years following its creation. The religion of the Mutapa kingdom revolved around ritual consultation of spirits and of royal ancestors.

Shrines were maintained within the capital by spirit mediums known as mhondoro. The mhondoro also served as oral historians recording the names and deeds of past kings. As the Portuguese settled along the coast, they made their way into the hinterland as sertanejos backwoodsmen.

These sertanejos lived alongside Swahili traders and even took up service among Shona kings as interpreters and political advisors. This was probably the first grant of arms to a native of southern Africa; however it is unlikely that these arms were ever actually used by the Mwenemutapa.

This was all the excuse the Portuguese needed to penetrate the interior and take control of the gold mines and ivory routes. After a lengthy preparation, an expedition of 1, men under Francisco Barreto was launched in They managed to get as far as the upper Zambezi, but local disease decimated the force.

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The Portuguese returned to their base in and took their frustrations out on the Swahili traders, whom they massacred. They replaced them with Portuguese and their half-African progeny who became prazeiros estate holders of the lower Zambezi.

Mutapa maintained a position of strength exacting a subsidy from each captain of Portuguese Mozambique that took the office. The Mwenemutapa also levied a duty of 50 percent on all trade goods imported.

However, the Portuguese proved to be happy with the downfall of the Mutapan state. Portuguese control[ edit ] In the Mwenemutapa attempted to throw out the Portuguese. He failed and in turn he himself was overthrown, leading to the Portuguese installation of Mavura Mhande Felipe on the throne.

All the while, Portugal increased control over much of southeast Africa with the beginnings of a colonial system. The Portuguese were now in control of the trade and the trade routes. Another problem for Mutapa was that its tributaries such as KiteveMadanda and Manyika ceased paying tribute.

At the same time, a new kingdom under a Rozvi dynasty near Barwe was on the rise. All of this was hastened by Portugal retaining a presence on the coast and in the capital. It also allowed the praezeros to establish fortified settlements across the kingdom. Inthe praezeros were able to depose Mwenemutapa Siti Kazurukamusapa and put their own nominee, Kamharapasu Mukombwe on the throne.

The Rozvi not only originated from the Great Zimbabwe area, but still continued to build their towns in stone. They were also importing goods from the Portuguese without any regard for the Mwenemutapa. When Mukombwe died ina succession crisis erupted.

The Portuguese backed one successor and Dombo another.Pwiti argues that if one of the reasons for the collapse of Great Zimbabwe was the shift in the focus of trade to the north, then it is logical to credit the early rulers of the Mutapa state with the introduction of large scale external trade in northern Zimbabwe.

The Mutapa State consolidated power and maintained its dominance from the 15th to the 20th century in what is now present day Zimbabwe. The ruling class of the Mutapa people had similar culture and customs as those of the Great Zimbabwe.

The Kingdom of Mutapa or any kingdom of Zimbabwe holds a captivating history. This Kingdom was founded in , succeeding the kingdom of the Great Zimbabwe.

This kingdom was founded by a royal member from its successor. It stretched from Zimbabwe to the Mozambique kingdom was of Karanga speaking majority.

The Mutapa Empire was bordered by the Zambesi and Limpopo rivers. The Kingdom of Mutapa Empire (Shona: Wene we Mutapa; Portuguese: Monomotapa) was a medieval kingdom (c.

) which stretched between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers of Southern Africa in the modern states of Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The Mutapa’s control in these far away lands was probably peripheral and not regular.

The mutapa state

It has been suggested by some including the archaeologist Peter Garlake that religion was also significant to the rise and expansion of the Mutapa State. In as far as religion is an important component of ideology, this suggestion is plausible. Etymology. The name Mutapa means "the conquered lands." The mwene (bantu term for "lord," specifically a conquering king) was the title giving rise to the state being referred to as Mwene Mutapa.

This phrase has been preserved in documents as Munhu mu tapa, Manhumutapa, and the Portuguese, Monomotapa.. History.

Mutapa Empire - Afropedea