API This chapter explains the classes available in JGroups that will be used by applications to build reliable group communication applications.
Logging exists to support a variety of operations in SQL Server. It ensures that if a crash occurs, a committed transaction will be correctly reflected in the database after the crash. It ensures that an uncommitted transaction will be correctly rolled back and not reflected in the database after a crash.
It ensures that it is possible to cancel an in-flight transaction and have all its operations rolled back. It allows a backup copy of the transaction log to be taken so that a database can be restored and the transaction log backups replayed to bring the database to a specific point in time with transactional consistency.
And it supports features that rely on reading the transaction log, such as replication, database mirroring, and change data capture.
The majority of these uses of logging involve a mechanism called recovery. Recovery is the process of having the changes described in log records replayed or reverted in the database.
Replaying log records is called the REDO or roll forward phase of recovery. Reverting log records is called the UNDO or roll back phase of recovery.
In other words, recovery will make sure that a transaction and all its constituent log records are either redone or undone. The simple form of recovery is when a single transaction is canceled, in which case it is undone and there is no net effect on the database.
The most complex form is crash recovery—when SQL Server crashes for whatever reason and the transaction log must be recovered to bring the database to a write ahead logging method of work consistent point. This means that all transactions that were committed at the time of the crash must be rolled forward to ensure their effects are persisted in the database.
And all in-flight transactions that had not committed at the time of the crash must be rolled back to ensure their effects are not persisted in the database. This is because there is no facility for a transaction in SQL Server to continue after a crash.
Thus, if the effects of a partially complete transaction were not rolled back, the database would be left in an inconsistent state possibly even structurally corrupt, depending on what the transaction was in the middle of doing.
So how does recovery know what to do? All recovery processes depend on the fact that each log record is stamped with a log sequence number LSN. A log sequence number is an ever-increasing, three-part number that uniquely defines the position of a log record within the transaction log.
Each log record in a transaction is stored in sequential order within the transaction log and contains the transaction ID and the LSN of the previous log record for the transaction.
In other words, each operation that is recorded as part of the transaction has a "link" back to the operation that immediately preceded it.
For the simple case of a single transaction being rolled back, the recovery mechanism can easily and quickly follow the chain of logged operations from the most recent operation back to the first operation and undo the effects of the operations in the opposite order from which they occurred.
The database pages that were affected by the transaction are either still in the buffer pool or on disk. In either case, the image of the page that is available is guaranteed to be one where the effect of the transaction is reflected on the page and must be undone.
During crash recovery, the mechanism is more complicated. The fact that database pages are not written to disk when a transaction commits means that there is no guarantee that the set of database pages on disk accurately reflects the set of changes described in the transaction log—either for committed or uncommitted transactions.
This allows the recovery system to decide what to do about a particular log record that it must recover: For a log record from a committed transaction where the database page has an LSN equal to or greater than the LSN of the log record, nothing needs to be done.
The effect of the log record has already been persisted on the page on disk. For a log record from a committed transaction where the database page has an LSN less than the LSN of the log record, the log record must be redone to ensure the transaction effects are persisted.
For a log record from an uncommitted transaction where the database page has an LSN equal to or greater than the LSN of the log record, the log record must be undone to ensure the transaction effects are not persisted.
For a log record from an uncommitted transaction where the database page has an LSN less than the LSN of the log record, nothing needs to be done. The effect of the log record was not persisted on the page on disk and as such does not need to be undone.
Crash recovery reads through the transaction log and ensures that all effects of all committed transactions are persisted in the database, and all effects of all uncommitted transactions are not persisted in the database—the REDO and UNDO phases, respectively.
Once crash recovery completes, the database is transactionally consistent and available for use. I mentioned earlier that one of the uses of a checkpoint operation is to reduce the amount of time that crash recovery takes.
By periodically flushing out all dirty pages to disk, the number of pages that have changed because of committed transactions but whose images are not on disk is reduced. This, in turn, reduces the number of pages that need to have REDO recovery applied during crash recovery. The Transaction Log Crash recovery is only possible if the transaction log is intact.
If the transaction log is missing or damaged after a crash, then crash recovery cannot complete, leading to a suspect database. In that case, the database must be restored from backups or recovered using less desirable options, such as emergency mode repair.Bidvertiser is a direct advertising site that could be an excellent AdSense alternative if you didn’t get Adsense approval or got banned.
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Write-Ahead Transaction Log This section describes the role of the write-ahead transaction log in recording data modifications to disk.
SQL Server uses a write-ahead logging (WAL) algorithm, which guarantees that no data modifications are written to disk before . How to Access Work Email from Home. In this Article: Outlook Web App Outlook Client iPhone Exchange Email Android Exchange Email BlackBerry Community Q&A Work these days rarely stops when you leave the office, and more and more people are finding it necessary to check work emails from home or on the go.
Management Method Using Write-Ahead Logging C. MOHAN Data Base Technology Institute, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA , USA [email protected], tbm. com as part of our ARIES/KVL work which improved that ap-proach’s concurrency and locking overhead characteristics.
Java is blessed with three big Java logging frameworks: Java Util Logging, Log4j 2, and Logback. When picking one for your project, did you ever wonder about their performance?